Life as a Working Class Student

I have been working class my entire life. In fact, some would categorise my immediate family as living on the poverty line, struggling to make ends meet and relying heavily on government aid just to put a roof over our heads. I’m sure, in fact I know, that there are many other students just like or even worse off than myself, and that these people have battled with constant financial difficulties for as long as they can remember. Many, myself included, have never been abroad on family holidays; many have had to hide their embarrassment from their parents as they leave for school in their half mast trousers and hole-ridden shoes; many have struggled with their education due to poor mental health or a lack of resources. However, despite all this, we drag ourselves through an education system that fails us and by some miracle manage to get into university because we are determined to achieve our dreams and better ourselves. Growing up poor is one of the most difficult things I have ever experienced, and escaping poverty isn’t any easier.

As a person from a low-income family attending university, I got the maximum amount of student loan (and luckily maintenance grant) you could get. I was able to afford my rent and pay for whatever necessities I needed. I can remember hearing people from wealthier families complain about how the burden of funding their education or paying their rent should not fall to their parents, and I completely agree with them. A major part of going to university is establishing yourself as an independent adult, so I believe that everyone should receive enough funding to not be financially reliant on their family. However, I have also seen and heard disgruntled remarks directed at working class students for spending some of their leftover funding on a summer abroad or going to festivals. This has always bothered me, because the offending individuals are forgetting one vital thing. A lot of the students that receive the maximum amount of funding during their time at university have never been in a position to afford such luxuries. These are the same people whose parents could not afford to buy them new clothes or treat them to a meal out for their birthday. These are the same people that never got the new iPhone, or a new car, or even a trip to Disney Land. These are the same people that without an adequate amount of funding could not attend university.

Throughout the course of my undergraduate studies, my single mother has struggled with money. In the final year of my degree, she was made unemployed and left to provide for three children (not including myself) with practically no income. On many occasions, she was forced to turn to me for help. Me. Her 23-year-old daughter who herself was struggling to save enough to fund a Master’s degree. I hate to make assumptions, but I think it is safe to say that practically none of the people that complain about their lack of government funding have ever had to support their mother. If I were to find myself in any kind of financial predicament, I cannot look to my family for help. I can’t just ask my mum for a quick £200 and her be able to (even if it’s begrudgingly) just hand it over. To be honest, asking to borrow a tenner feels like asking for the world to me.

Now, in no way am I saying that wealthier students have it easy, because I absolutely know that being a student can really suck for anyone. What I am saying is that the anger and vitriol I sometimes see being hurled at working class students for just wanting to enjoy themselves a little should be directed at the people providing the funding. Your friend that lived in a council house her entire life and didn’t have a properly functioning phone until she left high school is not the enemy. The system that commodifies higher education is.

Graduating with a First Class Degree in Zoology

So, yesterday I found out that on 19th July 2018 I will be graduating with a First Class Bachelor of Science Degree in Zoology. After three years of stressful days and hard work, I was over the moon to discover that the effort that I had invested in my studies had paid off. Excitingly, this means that I have met the criteria required in order to secure my place on a Masters course in Primate Behaviour and Conservation at Liverpool John Moores University in September.

The past three years have passed by in a whirlwind. I met some incredible people, a few of which I hope to be lifelong friends with. I also got to travel to take part in multiple field course in Yorkshire, Uganda, and France. These courses allowed me to gain invaluable experience of conducting research in a field setting, and massively improved my confidence in this area. Without these amazing opportunities, there is no way that I would have been able to secure a place on a Masters course, or a volunteer position as a research assistant collecting data on the social behaviour of chimpanzees.

One thing that I feel that I absolutely must mention is the level of support that I received from the staff. The head of school was my academic advisor throughout my studies, and he was always helpful and inspiring. When I was struggling with my mental health, he was understanding and would aid me in whatever way he could, whether it was setting up an informal meeting, or getting in touch with other lecturers to make them aware of the situation. My honours project supervisor was also an inspiration; she was always considerate, and would do her utmost to ensure my success. Thanks to her, I was able to attain a first in my dissertation, and as a result, a first overall in my degree.

I am excited to embark upon a new chapter in my life, and cannot wait to begin specialising in primatology. The more I think about my future, the more passionate I become about achieving my dreams, and achieving a first class degree shows that I am capable of doing so.

Red Ape: Saving the Orangutan

Last night I watched the incredible programme ‘Natural World 2018-2019 Episode 4 – Red Ape: Saving the Orangutan’ on BBC Two (link here – be warned, it is quite an upsetting watch). Conveniently enough, I had also just began to read ‘Reflections of Eden’ by Birutė Galdikas. In Red Ape, we follow a team of medics from International Animal Rescue that have been fighting to save the critically endangered orangutans of Borneo for the last decade. The scenes are harrowing – apes stuck in snare traps, their limbs rotting aways as they wait to die, babies separated from their mothers, 70 kg adult males freefalling from the tops of trees that stand taller than the clouds. In the spirit of awareness, I will briefly outline orangutans as a species, and then cover the threats facing these awe-inspiring primates.

Orangutans share 97% of their DNA with us humans, with ‘orangutan’ originally meaning ‘human of the forest’. These animals are incredibly intelligent, forming complex relationships with others of their kind. The orangutan is the only extant great ape existing outside of Africa, and is unique in its tendency to spend most of their lives in the canopy. In actuality, the orangutan is the largest arboreal animal in the world, and is incredibly adapted for such a life in the rainforest. Only two million years ago, the orangutan was a common species found throughout Southeast Asia, covering an area greater than 1.5 million square kilometres. It has been estimated that the habitat of orangutans was roughly 25 million hectares back in 1973, and will diminish to less than 10 million hectares by 2025, constituting a loss of 62% in 50 years. As such, if deforestation continues to occur at this rate, it is likely that more than 86% of the orangutan population will disappear.

Following intensive logging of hardwood trees since the 1960s, many of the densely forested areas inhabited by this red ape have disappeared. In the mid 1990s, Indonesia ‘ran out’ of these hardwood tree species, and no longer had a steady source of income. As such, the country fell into an economic crisis, and desperately searched for new methods to rejuvenate their failing economy. Enter the palm oil industry. Palm oil is found in almost everything, from snack foods to bathing products, and its production is now the main driver of tropical deforestation in Indonesia. If the current unsustainable development of palm oil plantations continues as expected, the rainforests of Indonesia stands to further lose an area the size of whales by the end of this decade. As it stands, orangutans appear to have not much of a chance at survivial, however there are many inspiring individuals that are dedicating their lives to protecting these animals in their natural habitat and in captivity.

In addition to charities, NGOs, and driven individuals trying to solve this problem in the field, those of us at home can do our bit to help save orangutans. By attempting to cut out palm oil from our consumption, or even by ensuring that we buy from certified sustainable sources, we are reducing the demand for this product, and thus the need to deforest to meet this demand. However, I understand that this can be incredibly difficult, especially with it being in literally everything and labels being confusing and overcomplicated. It can also be beneficial to actively support companies in their attempts to cut out palm oil, for example Iceland UK have promised to ban palm oil in their own-brand products and Body Shop UK are committed to using only sustainable palm oil in their products. By choosing to shop at these outlets, particularly when supermarkets such as Iceland are incredibly affordable, you are doing your bit to protect not just orangutans, but all other species impacted by deforestation in Borneo.

http://www.unimills.com/renderers/showmedia.ashx?id=64d47ab3-916a-495c-9934-b4004d58890c

When shopping, why not spend a little bit of time scanning for the presence of palm oil in the ingredients? And if palm oil is present, why not check if it is sustainably harvested? Some items may have the above logo presented proudly on their packaging, and many brands may provide information regarding their palm oil use on their websites. Taking just a few minutes out of your day to check if the palm oil in your biscuits is sustainably developed could literally save lives.

Most of this information came from the programme that I watched last night and Save the Orangutan and I really recommend visiting the latter if you want to learn more about the plight of the orangutan and what is being done to improve their situation.

International Macaque Week

It’s international macaque week and as an ode to our furry relatives, I have decided to do a little piece on macaques as a group and some modern day conundrums involving primate species.

Macaques are a group of Old World monkeys that fall into the subfamily Cercopithecinae, consisting of 23 species worldwide [1]. Despite being a principally frugivorous taxonomic group, their diet may consist of seeds, leaves, flowers, tree bark, some invertebrates, and occasionally small vertebrates. Macaques are one of the most widespread members of the primate order, second only to humans, ranging across Asia to North Africa and Southern Europe. Macaques have an incredibly intricate social structure and hierarchy, with all social groups being arranged around dominant, matriarchal females [2]. Numerous macaque species are used in animal testing, kept as pets despite nearly all captive rhesus macaques being carriers of the herpes simian B virus [3], and are persecuted by humans. As such, many macaque species are classified as threatened.

I am now going to discuss an issue that has been itching at me since I first heard about it a couple of months ago – the recent cloning of crab-eating macaques [4].

Capture
Images of two crab-eating macaque infants (Macaca fascicularis) cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer

Recently, similarly to Dolly the sheep 22 years ago, two crab-eating macaque infants were cloned using foetal fibroblasts (cells found in connective tissue) derived from an aborted female crab-eating macaque. Adjacent to the attempt at cloning with foetal fibroblasts, somatic cell nuclear transfer, whereby a viable embryo is created using a body cell and an egg cell, was attempted using adult monkey cumulus cells (cells that surround immature egg cells (oocytes)). However, whereas the former method  produced what the researchers describe as ‘healthy’ clones, the latter method was unable to do so, with infants dying hours after birth due to apparent respiratory failure.

The apparent reasoning behind this cloning is that these monkeys will be used for the investigation of human diseases, drug screening, and the development of other therapeutics. The researchers involved have stated that these clones will allow for the isolation of gene effects, with animals being genetically identical except for the particular genes that have been switched on/off/mutated.

You can read an article on the research here, and the full journal is available from here.

Now it’s time for my unsolicited opinion. I am by no means an expert in the field of genetics, and in no way do I claim to have a better understanding of the ethical issues encompassing these findings than those who conducted the research. However, it is my firm belief that creating life for such a purpose is incredibly cruel. Despite the fact that these creatures were created in a lab, they are tangible, living beings with their own minds and personalities. I have always had a problem with animal testing, especially when it is unwarranted and in the pursuit of vanity. In this case, I do not believe that the proposed testing would be conducted with such an end in mind. However, it is my opinion that purposely altering a living creature’s genetic code for insight into the mechanisms at play in certain diseases is appalling. If someone put forward the idea to conduct such research on humans, particularly human infants, the world would be in uproar. Some would claim you were playing God; others would call it torture.

I think it is so incredibly important that we all assess what price we are willing to pay for knowledge, and whether such an understanding of genetic diseases is worth the suffering that could potentially arise from such an undertaking. All life is precious. No one creature is more worthy of a comfortable existence than another. I sincerely hope that at some point in my life I will be blessed enough to see the end of animal testing, but I very much doubt it.

Sunda pig-tailed macaque on liana
Sunda pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) on liana

References

[1] Primate Info Net. (2012). Primate Factsheets: Macaque (Macaca). [online] Available at: http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/links/macaca [Accessed 3 May 2018].

[2] Fleagle, J. (1988). Primate adaptation & evolution. San Diego: Academic Press, p.123.

[3] Ostrowski, S. (1998). B-virus from Pet Macaque Monkeys: An Emerging Threat in the United States?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(1), pp.117-121.

[4] Liu, Z., Cai, Y., Wang, Y., Nie, Y., Zhang, C., Xu, Y., Zhang, X., Lu, Y., Wang, Z., Poo, M. and Sun, Q. (2018). Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. Cell, 172(4), pp.881-887.e7.

 

Aspiring Primatologist

As a child, I was fascinated with all living things. However, nothing captured my interest more than our closest evolutionary relatives – primates. I would often find myself thinking how amazing it would be to see them in the wild, to watch them for hours, to learn about and from them. I would constantly dream about them and wish with all my might that I could just see one in nature, not locked away in a cage on display.

At the time, I thought that science was a thing for boys. All the nature programmes I devoted hours of my life to watching were either narrated or presented by men – David Attenborough, Steve Irwin, Chris Packham, Steve Backshall, Gordon Buchanan, and countless others I can’t name. It wasn’t until I could read that I realised that women could be scientists too – Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Birute Galdikas, even Rosalind Franklin and Marie Curie. The older I became, the more I studied and read, the more I realised that if I so desired, I too could become a scientist; I too could study animals the way that my childhood heroes had.

Despite my immeasurable desire to see a primate in its natural habitat, I spent 22 years of my life confined to Britain, only seeing the creatures that enamoured me so in captivity or on film. When, during my studies as a Zoology student at University of Liverpool, I was offered the opportunity to travel to Uganda as part of a Tropical Field Course module, I saved what little money I had and boarded a plane for the very first time to Africa – the home continent of primates. The first wild non-human primate I set eyes on was a vervet monkey, and I was completely mystified. Seeing such an animal able to move as freely as myself, not restricted by bars, was awe-inspiring. Soon after, I spotted black-and-white colobus monkeys, red colobus monkeys, red-tailed monkeys, blue monkeys, grey-cheeked mangabeys, olive baboons, and eventually our closest relatives – chimpanzees. When I first set my eyes on a wild chimpanzee my glasses fogged up, tears stung my eyes and I realised I had forgotten to breathe. Completely mesmerised, I neglected to take photographs, not wanting to miss a second of their visible activity. Only after I had seen them on a couple more excursions into the Kibale National Park rainforest did I try to capture them on camera. It was at this point that I decided that no matter what obstacles presented themself, I was going to study primate behaviour.

This year I will finish my third and final year at University of Liverpool, after which I intend to study a MSc in Primate Behaviour and Conservation at Liverpool John Moores University. I am so excited to start this new chapter in my life, studying under world leading experts in the field and learning how to pave my own way into this incredibly competitive area of research. I’m ready to work hard and learn some amazing things.

The featured image for this post is a red colobus monkey that I photographed on 11/04/2017 in Kibale National Park, Uganda.